Is trade good or bad for the environment? Sorting out the causality

The article states that trade may indeed have a beneficial effect on three air pollution measures. The results of broader environmental measures are not as encouraging, but it is possible to at least say that there is little evidence that trade has the detrimental effect on the environment suggested by the “race to the bottom” theory. These results are based on the Kuznets environmental curve, which states that growth harms the environment at low income levels and helps it at high levels, based on the premise that opening up to trade accelerates the growth process.

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